Promote reading and writing instruction that is integrated across all subject areas.
Recognize that literacy instruction should support student independence by providing opportunities for students to apply their knowledge and skills with materials and activities that match their abilities and interests.
Ensure that concepts, skills, and strategies that students need to become proficient readers and writers are explicitly taught.
Extend beyond teaching of essential literacy skills to helping students acquire a habit of reading and writing and seeing themselves as readers and writers.
Recognize that all students need to be surrounded by a print-rich environment that demonstrates the power and importance of literacy, including a wide variety of engaging reading materials other than textbooks.